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I.Definition: Acne is a chronic skin condition that primarily affects the hair follicles and oil glands on the skin. Acne occurs when the hair follicles become clogged with excess oil dead skin cells, and bacteria.

Acne is a common skin condition that occurs when hair follicles become clogged with oil and dead skin cells. It is characterized by the presence of pimples, blackheads, and whiteheads on the face, neck, chest, and back. Acne can range in severity from mild to severe and can cause emotional distress and scarring in some individuals.


Acne can be categorised into different grades:

  • Grade 1: Mild blackheads and papules

  • Grade 2: Moderate blackheads, pustules and papules

  • Grade 3: Moderate to severe inflammation, blackheads, pustules and papules

  • Grade 4: Severe inflammation, blackheads, pustules and papules



  1. Lesions: Acne is typically characterised by the presence of lesions however there are slight variations in these lesions and the correct measures must be followed in identifying the type of Acne as the line of treatment differ.

  1. Location: Acne commonly appears on areas with a high concentration of oil glands, such as the face (especially the forehead, nose, and chin), chest, back, and shoulders. However, it can occur on other parts of the body as well.

  2. Inflammation: Inflammatory acne is characterized by redness, swelling, and tenderness around the affected area due to the body's immune response to clogged pores and bacterial activity.

  3. Oily Skin: Excessive oil (sebum) production is often associated with acne. The skin may appear shiny or greasy, particularly in the T-zone (forehead, nose, and chin).

  4. Blackheads: Open comedones that appear as small, dark spots on the skin's surface. The dark color is not due to dirt but results from the oxidation of melanin when exposed to air.

  5. Whiteheads: Closed comedones that appear as small, flesh-colored or whitish bumps beneath the skin's surface. They are covered by a thin layer of skin, making them harder to extract compared to blackheads.

  6. Scarring: Severe or persistent acne lesions can lead to scarring. This can manifest as pitted or depressed scars (atrophic scars) or raised, thickened scars (hypertrophic or keloid scars).

  7. Fluctuations with Hormonal Changes: Hormonal fluctuations, particularly during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, or when using certain medications, can influence the development and severity of acne.

It's important to note that acne can vary greatly from person to person, and the presentation and severity of symptoms can change over time.


What are the various types of Acne?

There are several types of acne, which can present with different symptoms and require different treatment approaches. The most common types of acne include:

  • 1.     Whiteheads: These are small, raised bumps that occur when hair follicles become clogged with oil and dead skin cells. The follicle opening remains closed, resulting in a white or flesh-colored bump on the skin.

  • 2.     Blackheads: These are similar to whiteheads but are open to the skin's surface, allowing the trapped oil and dead skin cells to oxidize and turn dark. Blackheads often appear on the nose, chin, and forehead.

  • 3.     Papules: These are small, red bumps that occur when hair follicles become inflamed. They can be tender to the touch and do not contain pus.

  • 4.     Pustules: These are similar to papules but contain pus. They appear as raised, red bumps with a white or yellow center.

  • 5.     Nodules: These are large, painful bumps that form beneath the surface of the skin. They can be deep and difficult to treat and often lead to scarring.

  • 6.     Cysts: These are similar to nodules but are filled with pus and are often larger. They can be painful and may cause scarring.


What are the causes of Acne?

Acne can be caused by a combination of several factors, including:

  • 1.     Hormonal changes: During puberty, the body undergoes hormonal changes that can cause the sebaceous glands to produce more oil. This excess oil can clog hair follicles and lead to the development of acne.

  • 2.     Genetics: Acne can run in families, suggesting a genetic component to the condition.

  • 3.     Bacteria: The bacteria Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) can colonize hair follicles and contribute to the development of acne.

  • 4.     Inflammation: Inflammatory responses within the skin can contribute to the development of acne.

  • 5.     Diet: Some studies suggest that a diet high in sugar and refined carbohydrates may contribute to the development of acne.

  • 6.     Medications: Certain medications, such as corticosteroids, androgens, and lithium, can cause or worsen acne.

  • 7.     Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental pollutants and toxins may contribute to the development of acne.

    It's worth noting that the exact cause of acne is not fully understood, and different factors may play a larger or smaller role depending on the individual.



Preventing acne can be challenging, but there are several steps you can take to reduce your risk of breakouts. First, it's important to maintain a consistent skincare routine that includes gentle cleansing, exfoliation, and moisturizing. It's also essential to avoid touching your face, as this can transfer bacteria and oil from your hands to your skin. You should also try to avoid using heavy makeup or skincare products that can clog pores. Additionally, maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle can help reduce your risk of acne, as certain foods and lifestyle factors, such as stress, can trigger breakouts.

Finally, regular exercise, getting enough sleep, and avoiding smoking can all help keep your skin healthy and reduce your risk of acne. While preventing acne can be challenging, following these steps can help keep your skin clear and healthy.

  • 1.     Keep your skin clean: Cleanse your face twice a day with a gentle cleanser to remove excess oil, dirt, and dead skin cells.

  • 2.     Avoid touching your face: Touching your face can transfer bacteria and oil to your skin, which can lead to breakouts. Try to avoid touching your face as much as possible and keep your hands clean.

  • 3.     Use a silk pillowcase: Silk pillowcases are gentle on the skin and don't cause as much friction as other fabrics, which can help prevent acne.

  • 4.     Use a humidifier: Dry air can cause the skin to become dry and irritated, which can lead to acne. Using a humidifier can help keep the air moist and prevent breakouts.

  • 5.     Use a saltwater solution: Saltwater has natural antiseptic properties and can help kill bacteria that cause acne. Mix together a teaspoon of sea salt with a cup of warm water and use a cotton pad to apply to the affected area.

  • 6.     Use aloe vera: Aloe vera has natural anti-inflammatory properties and can help reduce redness and swelling associated with acne. Apply a thin layer of aloe vera gel to the affected area and let it dry before rinsing off with warm water.

  • 7.     Use a blue light phone case: blue light emitted from electronic devices can contribute to acne. Using a phone case that filters out blue light can help prevent breakouts on the cheeks and jawline.


Which treatments are effective for Acne?

Treating acne in a clinic can be highly effective, as it allows for a personalized treatment approach tailored to each individual's unique skin type and acne severity. Clinics can offer a range of treatment options, including prescription medications, advanced topical treatments, chemical peels, and light therapies, that are not available over-the-counter. Additionally, trained professionals can provide guidance on skincare routines and lifestyle modifications that can help prevent future breakouts. In a clinic setting, patients can also receive regular follow-up appointments to monitor their progress and adjust their treatment plan as needed.

  • 1.     Topical treatments: Topical creams, gels, and lotions that contain active ingredients like benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, or retinoids can be highly effective in treating acne. These products work by reducing inflammation, unclogging pores, and killing bacteria on the skin.

  • 2.     Light therapy: Light therapy, also known as phototherapy, uses specific wavelengths of light to reduce inflammation and kill bacteria on the skin. Blue light therapy and red-light therapy are commonly used for acne treatment and can be done in-office or at home with specialized devices.

  • 3.     Chemical peels: Chemical peels involve applying a chemical solution to the skin, which causes the top layer of skin to peel off, revealing smoother, healthier skin underneath. Chemical peels can help reduce the appearance of acne scars and improve the overall texture of the skin.

  • 4.     Hydro-dermabrasion is a non-invasive skin resurfacing treatment that uses water and specialized tips to exfoliate and unclog pores, revealing smoother, healthier skin. It can be an effective treatment for acne and can be combined with other treatments, such as chemical peels, for even better results.

  • 5.     Microdermabrasion: Microdermabrasion is a non-invasive skin resurfacing treatment that uses a specialized device to remove the top layer of dead skin cells. This can help unclog pores and reduce the appearance of acne scars.

  • 6.     Laser therapy: Laser therapy uses a high-intensity beam of light to target and destroy bacteria on the skin. This treatment can be effective in reducing inflammation and killing bacteria that contribute to the development of acne.



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